The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism
The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism
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As a continuation of the older tradition of classical liberalism, libertarian thinking draws on a rich body of thought and scholarship. Contemporary libertarian scholars are continuing that tradition by making substantial contributions to such fields as philosophy, jurisprudence, economics, evolutionary psychology, political theory, and history, in both academia and politics. With more than 300 A-to-Z signed entries written by top scholars, The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism is purposed to be a useful compilation of and introduction to libertarian scholarship. The Encyclopedia starts with an introductory essay offering an extensive historical and thematic overview of key thinkers, events, and publications in the development of libertarian thought. The Reader's Guide groups content for researchers and students alike, allowing them to study libertarianism topically, biographically, and by public policy issues.
- Entries conclude with bibliographies and references for further reading and cross-references to related entries.
- Each entry provides an introduction to a topic or policy question relevant to libertarianism or a biography of a person who has had an impact on libertarianism.
- Editors take special care to ensure entries clearly explain libertarian approaches to issues, do not take sides on disputed matters or engage in polemics, and represent the views of all sides fairly and accurately.
foundations of our culture are in direct conflict with each other. Joseph Campbell explains that “the ultimate loyalty of the Bible . . . is not to mankind but to God . . . , whereas the sympathy of the Greeks, finally, is for man; and the respect of the Greeks, for man’s reason.” Modern Western traditions are now a mix of these two diametrically opposed perspectives. Campbell continues: “Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, and Saturday, we are humanists with the Greeks; Sunday, for
exceptions: The first is that the termination of treatment is sometimes allowed in cases where death is not imminent (e.g., when a patient is in a persistent vegetative state). The second is that a person is sometimes, albeit E-Hamowy (Encyc)-45650.qxd 7/15/2008 3:04 PM Page 157 Euthanasia———157 rarely, allowed to end his own life by taking medication rather than refusing it (e.g., mercy medication and aid in dying). Mercy medication is allowed in several U.S. states. It refers to the use
for other fields. The eventual aim is to map human nature—that is, the species-typical information-processing architecture of the human brain. Like all cognitive scientists, when evolutionary psychologists refer to the mind, they mean the set of information-processing devices, embodied in neural tissue, that are responsible for all conscious and nonconscious mental activity and that generate all behavior. Like other psychologists, evolutionary psychologists test hypotheses about the design of
advance in the bureaucratic world are structurally adversarial to the organization’s objectives. In most cases, the incentives are set up in such a way that, to secure promotion, the situation requires actions contrary to the attainment of the objectives of the organization, and the bureaucrat will never choose a course of action detrimental to one’s own advancement. In summary, bureaucratic forms of organization have deep structural problems in effectively and efficiently accomplishing their
satisfy widely shared norms and provide adequate retribution. For some crimes, particularly premeditated murder, only capital punishment may satisfy those requirements. According to proponents, failure to apply capital punishment in such extreme cases undermines the legitimacy of the state and would lead to self-help. David Bruck, a lawyer who specializes in defending prisoners on death row, has aptly summarized much of the sentiment in favor of capital punishment: To those who spend their time